U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINCIPLES FOR THE UTILIZATION AND CARE OF VERTEBRATE ANIMALS
USED IN TESTING, RESEARCH AND TRAINING
The development of knowledge necessary for the improvement of the health
and well-being of humans as well as other animals requires in vivo
experimentation with a wide variety of animal species. Whenever U.S. Government
agencies develop requirements for testing, research, or training procedures
involving the use of vertebrate animals, the following principles shall
be considered; and whenever these agencies actually perform or sponsor
such procedures, the responsible institutional official shall ensure that
these principles are adhered to:
* For guidance throughout these Principles, the reader is referred to the
Guide for the
Care and Use of Laboratory Animals prepared by the Institute for
Laboratory Animal Research, National Academy of Sciences.
The transportation, care, and use of animals should be in accordance with
the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2131 et. seq.) and other applicable Federal
Laws, guidelines, and policies.*
Procedures involving animals should be designed and performed with due
consideration of their relevance to human or animal health, the advancement
of knowledge, or the good of society.
The animals selected for a procedure should be of an appropriate species
and quality and the minimum number required to obtain valid results. Methods
such as mathematical models, computer stimulation, and in vitro
biological systems should be considered.
Proper use of animals, including the avoidance or minimization of discomfort,
distress, and pain when consistent with sound scientific practices, is
imperative. Unless the contrary is established, investigators should consider
that procedures that cause pain or distress in human beings may cause pain
or distress in other animals.
Procedures with animals that may cause more than momentary or slight pain
or in distress should be performed with appropriate sedation, analgesia,
or anesthesia. Surgical or other painful procedures should not be performed
on unanesthetized animals paralyzed by chemical agents.
Animals that would otherwise suffer severe or chronic pain or distress
that cannot be relieved should be painlessly killed at the end of the procedure
or, if appropriate, during the procedure.
The living conditions of animals should be appropriate for their species
and contribute to their health and comfort. Normally, the housing, feeding,
and care of all animals used for biomedical purposes must be directed by
a veterinarian or other scientist trained and experienced in the proper
care, handling, and use of the species being maintained or studied. In
any case, veterinary care shall be provided as indicated.
Investigators and other personnel shall be appropriately qualified and
experienced for conducting procedures on living animals. Adequate arrangements
shall be made for their in service training, including the proper and humane
care and use of laboratory animals.
Where exceptions are required in relation to the provisions of these Principles,
the decisions should not rest with the investigators directly concerned
but should be made, with due regard to Principle II, by an appropriate
review group such as an institutional animal research committee. Such exceptions
should not be made solely for the purposes of teaching or demonstration.
Published in the Federal Register, May 20, 1985, Vol. 50, No. 97, by
the Office of Science and Technology Policy.